The interest and relevance of the biogas has now more than ever increased. On a global scale, its popularity and the production rate has been increasing rapidly as well. As far as Ukraine is concerned, the production of biogas is considered a recent industry with rather modest investments made into its development.
Nothing is innovative about approaching the biogas as an energy carrier. The biogas is the product of anaerobic fermentation of the manure and other industrial organic wastes. Thus, the biogas production ensures not only a renewable energy supply but also remains an efficient means of control of air and water pollution with emissions. Another benefit is making a profit by saving on energy resources.
Nowadays, attitudes toward alternative energy sources have changed considerably; they gained popularity since the cost of typical energy resources rises each year. The biogas in its nature is an excellent opportunity to quit paying charges for typical energy resources and to arrange one’s own energy source in any amount and for any purpose instead.
The process of anaerobic fermentation is an oxygen-free process of biomass conversion (for example, the wastewaters from a yeast brewery, a dairy plant or the manure from agriculture company) involving the bacteria and getting mainly the methane and fertilizers (residues from a conversion) out of organic raw mineral. In the process of anaerobic fermentation complex organic compounds undergo decomposition into СО2 and СН4 producing the biogas, i.e. a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane up to 70%. The technological process of biomass anaerobic fermentation happens without oxygen in specialized anaerobic reactors, aka methane tanks, designed to ensure the maximum methane emanation.
The list of organic waste usable and acceptable for the production of biogas: manure, poultry litter, distillery stillage, brewery wastewater, beet pulp, faecal sedimentation from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, slaughterhouse solid and liquid waste (blood, fats, bowels), grass, household waste, dairy plant waste (salty and sweet milk whey), biodiesel production waste (industrial glycerine out of oilseed rape biodiesel production), solid and liquid waste from production of juice and fruit juice concentrates (fruit, berry, vegetable pulp; grape husk and seeds), waterweed, starch, molasses, syrup or yeast brewery solid and liquid waste, waste from potato processing (peel, rotten tubers), coffee pulp, wastewaters from potato chips production plants, wastewaters from pulp and paper comprises and many other industries. Biogas can be produced from not only waste but also from specifically cultivated energy crop such as corn silage, silphium, waterweed. The gas output can reach 300 m? per 1 ton.